14 Types of Computer Memory

14 Types of Computer Memory

There’s no doubt that they’re working to their full potential. Computers require memory to store information that the central processor unit uses to process and finish instructions in order to work effectively. Consider learning more about computer memory and its significance in digital devices if you want to pursue a profession in computer science. We’ll go over what computer memory is, why it’s important, and the 14 different types of computer memory in this post.

What is computer memory?

Computer memory is a system that stores data and instructions on a device, either internally or externally. It is made up of numerous memory cells, each with its own unique identifying number. Depending on the task the user has asked the computer to perform, the central processing unit (CPU), which receives and executes instructions, selects specific cells to read or write data to. Depending on how much memory you need and the sort of device you’re using, you can choose from a variety of options.

Why is computer memory important?

Because devices can’t process tasks without it, computer memory is crucial. A device’s memory guarantees that it turns on and works properly. It also allows you to use numerous apps at the same time while keeping your computer running quickly. You can also utilise some kinds to save data for later use if you desire to do so.

14 types of computer memory

Here is a list of 14 types of computer memory:

1. Internal

Internal memory, often known as primary memory, is where the computer keeps little quantities of data that it can access while you’re using it. Internal memory is made up of chips that are attached to the motherboard and must be connected to the device directly in order to be used. RAM and ROM are the two most common types of internal memory, each with its own collection of memories.

2. RAM

The major internal memory of the central processing unit is random access memory (RAM) (CPU). It is used to store temporary data on your electronic device. It accomplishes this by giving apps a place to store data they’re actively utilising so they can retrieve it fast. Your device’s performance and speed are determined by the amount of RAM it has. If you don’t have enough RAM, your computer will process programmes slowly, affecting the output and the speed with which you can utilise it.


DRAM (dynamic random access memory) is one of two types of RAM commonly used in modern electronics such laptops, desktops, portable devices, and gaming systems. It produces high-capacity memory and is the less expensive of the two forms of RAM. It’s made up of two parts: transistors and capacitors, and it needs to be recharged every few seconds in order to save its data. It, like RAM, loses data when the power goes out and has volatile memory.


In contrast to DRAM, which is refreshed significantly more often, static random access memory (SRAM) stores data as long as there is electricity in the system. It is more expensive than DRAM since it stores power for longer periods of time, hence it is not as extensively employed. SRAM is typically used for cache memory, making it a faster memory type than DRAM.

5. ROM

Another form of primary internal memory is read-only memory (ROM), which, unlike RAM, is non-volatile and keeps data indefinitely. It does not require that the device be turned on to save data. Instead, a programmer enters data into individual cells using binary code, which uses the “1” and “0” two-symbol scheme to represent text. Because you can’t change the data in ROM, you can use it for things that don’t change, like software boot-up or firmware instructions that let a device function correctly.


PROM (programmable read-only memory) is a form of ROM that starts out with no data. A PROM programmer is a specific device that may be used to write data onto the chip. Once data is written onto the chip, it is permanent, just like ROM. This form of memory may be useful to programmers who want to write custom firmware for a chip and utilise it to change a system’s normal operation.


EPROMs (erasable programmable read-only memory) are another form of ROM chip that may be used to write data, erase it, and reprogram it. UV light in the form of a quartz crystal window at the top of the chip can be used to delete the current data. After you’ve wiped the data, you can reprogram it using the PROM programmer. Because excessive erasing can destroy an EPROM chip and make it unreliable for future use, you can only delete data from it a specific number of times.


The third form of non-volatile ROM chip is the electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), which usually supersedes the requirement for PROM or EPROM chips. This sort of memory also allows users to erase and reprogram data into the chip, but it does so using an electric field and is significantly faster than an EPROM at erasing data. Furthermore, data can be erased while the chip is still inside the computer, whereas EPROM chips must be removed from the computer to be erased.

9. Cache

Cache memory is a type of internal high-speed semiconductor memory that stores data that the CPU uses frequently. It allows access to the CPU, allowing the cache memory to deliver data and programmes to the CPU almost instantaneously when the CPU needs them. Cache memory, which is often located between the CPU and RAM, acts as a buffer between the two.

10. External

External memory, also called secondary memory, is memory that is not directly connected to the CPU and can be added or removed as needed. Individuals employ several different forms of external memory in their devices. External hard drives, flash drives, memory cards, and compact discs are examples (CDs). You can transfer data from a computer to an external memory device by removing it from the device and connecting it to another compatible device.

11. Optical drive

Optical drive memory is a type of external memory that uses light to store and read data. CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs are the most prevalent varieties. The contents of an optical drive are accessed by inserting the disc into the computer and spinning it. Inside the system, a laser beam scans it, receiving the data from the optical drive and uploading it to the computer. This sort of memory is beneficial since it is typically affordable, easy to access, and holds a large amount of data.

12. Magnetic storage

Magnetic storage devices feature a magnetic material coating that encodes data in the form of an electric current. Magnetic fields are used to magnetise small parts of a metal spinning disc in this sort of memory. Each segment corresponds to a “1” or “0” and includes a large quantity of data, frequently in the terabytes. This sort of memory is popular among users since it is inexpensive, long-lasting, and capable of storing large amounts of data. Magnetic tape, hard disc drives, and floppy discs are examples of magnetic storage devices.

13. Solid-state drives

Solid-state drives are silicon microchip-based external memory devices. Solid-state drives are comparable to magnetic storage devices in that they may be removed from the device from which data is being stored or extracted, but they are more modern. They’re also speedier because the binary data is stored electrically in silicon chips known as cells in the memory. Solid-state drives, on the other hand, use flash memory, which allows them to preserve memory even when the device is turned off. The universal serial bus (USB) memory stick or USB flash drive are two common types.

14. Virtual

Virtual memory, which can take the form of a hard drive or solid-state drive, allows a computer to compensate for physical memory shortages by shifting data from RAM to disc storage. When RAM becomes scarce, virtual memory transfers data to a paging file, which is a section of a hard disc that serves as an extension of RAM. This is a transient process that will be terminated when RAM becomes available.

For example, if a user is on their smartphone and utilising many applications at the same time, they may consume a significant amount of RAM, slowing down the device and its capacity to run the programmes efficiently. to make the applications work to their best potential

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